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AKGBackup - The backup program



Flow Control and Exception Handling

Write code using all forms of loops including labeled and unlabeled use of break and continue, and state the values taken by loop control variables during and after loop execution.


The do-while loop

This loop is especially useful when you process a menu selection, because you will usually want the body of a menu loop to execute at least once.

The for loop variations

The three sections of the for loop can be used for any purpose you desire.

  • One of the most common variations involves the conditional expression. Specifically, this expression does not need to test the loop control variable against some target value. In fact, the condition controlling the for loop can be any boolean expression.

  • Either the initialization or the iteration expression or both can be absent. There can be times when this type of approach makes sense. For example, if the initial condition is set through a complex expression elsewhere in the program or if the loop control variable changes in a non-sequential manner determined by actions that occur within the body of the loop, it may be appropriate to leave these parts of the for loop empty.

  • You can intentionally create an infinite loop if you leave all three parts of the for loop empty. Because, then there is no condition under which it will terminate.

Although there are some programs, such as operating system command processors, that require an infinite loop, most infinite loops are really just loops with special termination requirements.

The break statement

It has three uses:

  • It terminates a statement sequence in a switch statement.

  • It can be used to exit a loop.

By using break, you can force immediate termination of a loop, bypassing the conditional expression and any remaining code in the body of the loop. When a break is encountered inside a loop, the loop is terminated and program control resumes at the next statement following the loop. When used inside a set of nested loops, the break statement will only break out of the innermost loop. Two more points to remember: first, more than one break statements can appear in a loop. But, too many break statements have the tendency to de-structure your code. Second, the break that terminates a switch statement, affects only that switch statement and not any enclosing loops.

  • It can be used as a civilized form of goto.

This statement was not developed to provide the normal means by which a loop is terminated. The loop’s conditional expression serves that purpose. The break statement should be used to cancel a loop only in special cases.

The break statement cannot be used to break out of an if statement.

Using break as a form of goto

Java does not support goto statement, because it provides a way to branch in an arbitrary and unstructured manner. This usually makes goto-ridden code hard to understand and hard to maintain. It also prohibits certain compiler optimizations. There are, however, a few places where goto is a valuable and legitimate construct for flow control. For example, the goto can be useful when you are exiting from a deeply nested set of loops. To handle such situations, Java provides labeled break statement. By using this you can break out of the one or more blocks of code. These blocks need not be part of a switch or a loop. Further, you can specify precisely where execution will resume, because this form of break works with a label.

When this form of break executes, control is transferred out of the named block of the code. The labeled block of code must enclose the break statement, but it need not be the immediately enclosing block. This means that you can use a labeled break statement to exit from a set of nested blocks. But you cannot use break to transfer control to a block of code that does not enclose a break statement.

A label is any valid Java identifier followed by a colon. Once you have labeled a block, you can then use this label as the target of a break statement. Doing so causes execution to resume at the end of the labeled block.

Keep in mind that you cannot break to any label which is not defined for an enclosing block i.e. if the labeled block/loop does not enclose a break statement, it is not possible to transfer control to that block.

The continue statement:

Sometimes it is useful to force an early iteration of a loop. You might want to continue running the loop, but stop processing the remainder of the code in its body for this particular iteration. In while and do-while loops continue statement causes control to be transferred directly to the conditional statement that controls the loop. In a for loop, control first goes to the iteration portion of the for statement and then to the conditional expression. For all three loops, any intermediate code is bypassed.

As with the break statement, continue may specify a label to describe which enclosing loop to continue.

Good uses to continue are rare. One reason is that Java provides a rich set of loop statements which fit most applications. However, for those special circumstances in which early iteration is needed, the continue statement provides a structured way to accomplish it.

The return statement:

This is explicitly used to return from a method. It causes program control to transfer back to the caller of the method. The return statement immediately terminates the method in which it is executed.

class ReturnTest{

          public static void main (String [] args){

                   boolean t= true;

                   System.out.println (“Before the return.”);

                   if (t) return;

                   System.out.println (“This will not execute.”);


In this program, the if (t) statement is necessary. Without it, the java compiler would flag an “unreachable code” error, because the compiler would know that the last println() statement would never be executed. To prevent this error, the if statement is used here to trick the compiler for the sake of this demonstration.

In addition to these jump statements, Java supports one other way that you can change your program’s flow of execution: through exception handling.


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